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Surveillance to Address a Practice Problem

Surveillance to Address a Practice Problem

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Surveillance to Address a Practice Problem


For the Surveillance to Address a Practice Problem assignment, the outcomes support population health in terms of health and the efficient distribution of the impacts within the population. By collecting health data throughout time, epidemiology has been able to track the burden of disease across time and determine changes in disease occurrence and risk factors. Hence, surveillance is essential to address population health and enhance health outcomes (Chamberlain College of Nursing, 2019). Surveillance to Address a Practice Problem.

This conversation will examine mental illnesses, particularly significant depressive disorders (MDD). In order to address the issue of mental disorders and the necessary intervention to enhance the general population’s health, the debate will examine surveillance data at the local and national levels. The study of disease epidemiology has the potential to benefit from data mining technology, advancing disease control. Moreover, data gathering on rates of mortality, morbidity, and prevalence of depression enhances treatment planning and lowers costs (Jain &. Barot, 2018).

Surveillance to Address a Practice Problem

Identification of Information Hub and Topic Selected

A person with major depressive disorder (MDD) experiences a depressed mood, loss of interest, and impairments in daily functioning (Jain &. Barot, 2018). One of the most prevalent mental disorders nationally and locally is MDD. According to years of life with a disability adjusted for disability, MDD is ranked as the fourth most common cause of impairment. In 2020, MDD will rank second in terms of causes of death, behind only suicide. In comparison to diseases like diabetes, heart disease, and other physical conditions, MDD has a significant negative influence on public health. Outstanding economic effects are produced. The afflicted population worldwide exceeds 350 million. In addition to negatively influencing the quality of life, MDD has a significant suicide mortality rate (Gutierrez-Rojas et al., 2020; Tao et al., 2021; World Health Organization, 2019). Ask for Help with Surveillance to Solve a Practice Problem custom essay.

Using the State of One Residence, Compare and Contrast National and State Levels of Data

MDD affects seven percent of the United States (U.S.) population annually. An estimated 21.6 percent (42 million) of the U.S. population aged 18 years and over experienced depression between 2005 to 2008. In 2019, 20.6 percent of adults (51.5 million people) experienced mental illness in the U.S. Thus, the U.S. annual prevalence of depression is 7.8 percent. Surveillance to Address a Practice Problem. Over the past 11 years, national survey data indicated a 27 percent increase in the self-reported incidence of depression from age 40 to 59. In addition, there is under-reporting of an estimated seventy percent of major depressive cases in aged 65 and above adults (World Health Organization. (‎2019)‎.

There is a prediction of an increase in depression rate with covid-19 and an anticipated increase among the population with increasing life expectancy. There is a prediction that MDD will be the second leading disease burden in 2030 as measured in disability-adjusted life years. MDD comorbidity with other physical diseases increased morbidity and mortality rate.  Approximately 46 percent of people who die by suicide have a diagnosis of a mental disorder. At the national level, ninety percent of death from suicide are from people who have shown symptoms of depression or some other mental illness. The annual prevalence of suicide is 4.8 percent in adults, 11.8 percent in those aged 18 to 25, and 18.8 percent in high school students (National Alliance of Mental Illness {NAMI},2021).




The unemployment rate is higher among adults in the U.S. with mental illness (5.8 percent). In the U.S., the financial burden from MDD from 2005 to 2015 was 210.5 billion dollars. The cost was from the economic burden of treatment, disability claims, workplace absenteeism, and suicide-related (Kauffman et al., 2021). Surveillance to Address a Practice Problem

Comparison and Contrasting of Depression at the National Level and California

Approximately 11.0 percent of adolescents ages 12-17 from 2013 to 2014 had depressive episodes at the national level compared to 11.5 percent of California. In addition, the annual average of treatment of depression among adolescents at the national level (38.6 percent) was higher than in California (30.5 percent) between 2010 to 2014 (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration {SAMHSA}, 2015).

Depression is one of the most common mental disorders. An estimated six percent of California adults experienced MDD between 2011 to 2015, close to two million individuals in the California population.  Between 2017 to 2018, approximately 5.2 percent (1.6 million) of Californians reported their mental health treatment needs were unmet in the past year compared to the national level, with about 5.6 percent (13.8 million). Between 2013-2014, the rate of severe mental illnesses in California was 3.8 percent compared to the national level, with an estimated 4.2 percent. Between 2014 to 2015, estimated adults ages 18 and above had suicidal thoughts, about 3.9 percent at the national level and 3.8 percent in California. In addition, 36.9 percent of those aged 18 and above in California received treatment/therapy within a year of diagnosis compared to the 42.7 percent annual average at the national level between 2010-2014. In 2014, 79.4 percent of those aged 21 to 64 were unemployed due to mental disorders (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration {SAMHSA}, 2015).

Describing How Data from One Home State Compares to Data from the Other States.

The statistical analysis of depression is greatly affected by ethnicity. In the state of California, depression is highest among Native Americans. About 13.4 percent of the population of California’s native indicated experiencing major depressive disorder. The Pacific Islanders ranked number two (11.7 percent). The data stated Asian Americans (6.6 percent) and Caucasians (8.3 percent) are below average. Environmental and societal factors are essential to consider, and some populations are affected by depression. In California estimated 3.8 percent of all adults per year in 2013-2014, age 18 and above, have experienced severe mental illness (Johnson, 2020).

Surveillance to Address a Practice Problem

In comparing California to other states, California ranked number 48 for depression rate (9.17 percent). Oregon State ranked number one (17.7 percent) from analysis data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on depression rates over five years from 2014-2018 and the change in depression rates from 2014-2018. The percentage change denotes which state has experienced an increase or decrease in depression rates. The estimated depression rate in Oregon, a neighboring state to California, is 25.20 percent, with a percentage change of 9.17 percent. The overall depression rate in the individual States is from those who indicated they were diagnosed with some form of depression (Johnson, 2020).

One National Organization or Intervention That Addresses the Burden of The Disease

National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) is the nation’s largest grass root mental health organization devoted to creating better lives for populations in America with mental illness. NAMI allied with over 600 affiliates and 48 states to raise awareness and provide support and education to those with mental illness or who need help. (National Alliance on Mental Illness, 2021).

NAMI works to educate people to raise awareness of the mental illness, fight stigma, provide support, and advocate for families and individuals with mental illness. NAMI is a leading voice in the community by providing help, knowledge, statistics, and the story of people living with mental illness to leaders and journalists to promote awareness. NAMI has supported the research of race, related issues, and mental illness and has provided and supported programs to reduce mental illness. NAMI has helped individuals, families, and communities build hope for those needing mental health services, providing support and education to families living with loved ones with mental disorders. NAMI helps provide LGBTQ-positive psychotherapy to younger people under 25 years by providing services that enhance mental health and substance abuse to people who need the benefits even if they can pay for the services. NAMI has provided a lot of encounters and engagement with policymakers regarding issues with mental illness. NAMI publishes reports on problems promoting public awareness about the importance of adequate mental health policy and has led to the reform of many mental health services by different states. The report in 2021 is urging the federal government to protect individuals through affordable health care. Affordable care art has helped a lot of people with mental illness. In 2020, NAMI played a crucial role in allowing states to make policies relating to mental health policy. In 2016, the NAMI report called for a cultural shift toward mental illness (National Alliance on Mental Illness, 2021).



Professional Experience

In my professional experience providing care to individuals with mental illness in Southern California, 60 to 65 percent of my clients are Caucasian. 20 to 25 percent Hispanics, 15 percent Black, and less than five percent Asian.  About 90 percent of my practice is females and ten percent males. Under-reporting of MDD creates a gap in service rendered in mental health. For the past few years, I have had a young group of people come to my practice for a history of attempted suicide. Suicide is the second leading reason for death in ages 15-29. Severe mental illness that could be preventable has resulted in premature death in people.  From professional experience, non-adherence to medication and follow-up visits is a problem in psychiatry-often resulting in relapse. Every time an individual with significant depression relapses, the depression is more severe than the previous, often resulting in a lot of impairment and disability. There is a considerable gap between the individual that needs mental health care and access to mental health services. It is possible to provide low-cost and adequate mental health services coverage effectively.


In conclusion, proper evaluation, referral, and treatment can address knowledge gaps in mental disorders, epidemiology, prevention, and enhanced surveillance efforts. Using surveillance to determine prevalence, morbidity, and mortality by epidemiologists will promote the prevention of diseases. Epidemiology uses prevention strategies to negate the impact of disorders to advance health outcomes. Increasing awareness is needed to reduce stigma and easy access to mental health resources and care. Increase screening and treatment to improve existing mental disorders and education on mental health to decrease new cases.



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