Revenues and Expenses Discussion
I need help with my Accounting Revenues and Expenses Discussion question – I’m studying for my class.
Under the accrual basis accounting, revenues and expenses are recognized by the following principles:
- Revenue recognition: Revenue is recognized when both conditions are met: Revenue is earned, and Revenue is realized or realizable.
- Expense recognition: Expense is recognized when the related revenue is recognized (the Matching Principle).
Respond to the following in a minimum of 1 post of 175 words and 2 posts of 75 words :
Discuss when the requirements of the revenue recognition principle are usually met. Give an example.
Discuss when the requirements of the expense recognition principle are usually met. Give an example
- Revenue Recognition Principle:
The revenue recognition principle outlines the conditions under which revenue should be recognized in the financial statements. According to Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), revenue should be recognized when earned and realizable and reasonably certain that payment will be received for the goods or services provided. Here’s a breakdown of the key requirements:
a) Earned: Revenue is considered earned when the seller has substantially performed its obligations under the contract or agreement. This typically means that the goods have been delivered or the services have been rendered to the customer.
b) Realizable: Revenue is realizable when it is expected to be converted into cash or assets readily convertible to known amounts. Essentially, there is a reasonable assurance that the seller will receive payment for the goods or services.
c) Collectibility: The seller must reasonably estimate and expect payment to be collected from the customer. If there is significant uncertainty about collectibility, revenue recognition may be delayed until such uncertainty is resolved.
Example: Suppose a software company sells licenses for its new software product to customers. The customer orders 100 licenses, and the company delivers the licenses as per the agreed terms. The revenue recognition criteria are met when the company has delivered the software licenses to the customer (earned) and has an enforceable right to receive payment (realizable). As long as the company is reasonably certain that the customer will pay, it can recognize the revenue from the sale in its financial statements.
- Expense Recognition Principle (Matching Principle):
The expense recognition principle, also known as the matching principle, governs the timing of recognizing expenses in financial statements. According to this principle, expenses should be recognized in the same accounting period as the revenues they help generate. The goal is to match expenses with the revenues they contribute to, ensuring a more accurate representation of the company’s financial performance.
a) Association with Revenue: Expenses should be recognized when they directly contribute to generating revenue. This association between revenue and expenses helps in showing the true cost of earning the revenue.
b) Systematic and Rational Allocation: If the exact relationship between expenses and revenue is not straightforward, the expenses should be allocated systematically and rationally over the periods benefiting from the expenditure.
Example: Suppose a manufacturing company that produces and sells electronic devices. In a given accounting period, the company incurs various costs related to the production and sale of its devices, such as raw materials, labour, and manufacturing overhead. According to the expense recognition principle, these costs should be matched with the revenues they help generate during the same period. Suppose the company sells 1,000 devices during the period. In that case, the expenses incurred in producing those 1,000 devices should be recognized as costs of goods sold in the same period to determine the accurate profit earned. The goal is to avoid distorting the company’s financial performance by associating expenses with the corresponding revenue.